listening 9


    Welcome to your listening 9

    Multiple-choice, choose multiple answers – Item 1

    Question: The purpose of this talk is to _____
    Multiple-choice, choose multiple answers – Item 2

    Question: What happened as a result of the arrival of colonists?
    Fill in the blanks – Item 1

    One seminal difference in policy remains; the 1............ has not matched what is Labor's most important innovation promise. That is to bring together responsibilities for innovation, industry, science and research under one single federal minister. Innovation responsibilities 2............ lie within the powerful Department of Education and Science, and while there is a 3.......... industry department, it has little influence within Cabinet. This has 4...........policy development and given Australia's innovation policies a distinctly science and research 5............. It is the scientists rather than the engineers who call the tune in innovation policy in Canberra, so it's no surprise our policies are all about boosting government funded research and later 6................ their results.
    Fill in the blanks – Item 2

    We've decided to adopt, just as a loose theme for the course, a 1............theme so that you can see the 2......... between chemistry and biology and the things that you might consider doing in the future. We want you to think about the 3.......... that are relevant to your body, the processes that occur in your body, the chemistry that's going on and how 4..........plays a role. And we divided the course into four sections and after each section there will be a mid-term. The first one, or an exam. The first one is about 5........
    Highlight correct summary – Item 1
    Highlight correct summary – Item 2
    Multiple-choice, choose single answer – Item 1
    What is the main idea that the speaker is trying to convey in her comments?
    Multiple-choice, choose single answer – Item 2

    Question: What is the lecture mainly about?
    Select missing word – Item 1
    Highlight incorrect words – Item 1

    So far in our discussion of chemical reactions we have assumed that these reactions only go in one direction, the forward direction, from left to right as we read it in an equation. That's why our arrow points from left to right: reactants react together to make products. However, this is not exactly how things occur in nature. In fact, practically every chemical reaction is reversible, meaning the products can also react together to reform the reactants that they were made of. So instead of writing that single arrow facing from left to right, a more appropriate symbol would be a double arrow, one going from left to right and one going from right to left. Reactants are continually - continuously - reacting to form products. But at the same time as those products are formed, they remake the reactants. They're both going simultaneously, forming each other. This is what we would call a state of equilibrium.
    Highlight incorrect words – Item 2
    I think the importance of creativity today really reflects a fundamental shift in the nature of the economy. You know, in the old days, wealth was created because in the industrial era, you manufactured something, you got economies of scale, you had long production runs, you were really efficient - you know, you could get a Model T, any color just so long as it was black. Right? So there was standardization. And there was a whole set of assumptions about how to manage, how to create an organization - you know, a typical kind of hierarchical organization - to make sure that things ran smoothly. Well, that may be great for a relatively stable era of history - relatively stable - but now things are fundamentally unstable - and so we need less economies of scale and more economies of discovery. Which means that the management approach, the organizational approach, has got to shift as well.

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    Saya Khimta
    An alumni of Auckland House School, Shimla (Himachal Pradesh), I am a post graduate from Panjab University, Chandigarh. Currently, the owner of Saya Educationals, an English Language training institute located in the tricity and appreciated for being a good PTE/ IELTS trainer.


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