SUMMARIZE WRITTEN TEXT
Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. You have 1 0 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.
Tradition and commerce often clash in many cultures. In Trinidad, it is the Carnival that is the cause of current friction. The complaint, as you would expect, is that traditional skills and creativity are being lost in the rush to make profits. And the profits are large: the two-day festival, which attracts up to 40,000 tourists each year, is estimated to generate somewhere between $27 million and $100 million.
A particular problem for the traditionalists is that the extravagant colorful costumes people wear in the bands or processions are now largely being imported, especially from China. These costumes are cheaper and more revealing (another cause of complaint) than those made locally. Critics say these imports are a threat to traditional creations and, worse, mean sending work elsewhere. Others see turning the Carnival into a profitable and exportable industry as a progressive move, benefiting the country as a whole.
A large number of people are in two minds. On the one hand, the changes are a reflection of what people – mainly tourists – want, and bring in money. On the other, there is a desire to preserve traditions. The transformation of the bands and processions into businesses has disrupted the social order, which used to be made up of friends getting together to relax, eat and drink, and make costumes. Both sides agree, though, that the country needs to make better use of the skills of the people in the Carnival business and that the country’s resources must appeal to a wider market.
It wasn’t until the 19’11 century that Britain had a police force as we know it today. In medieval times, the maintenance of law and order was in the hands of local nobles and lords who were expected to keep the peace in their own land, and they would often appoint “constables” to police it. For a long time policing remained an unpaid activity or was paid for privately, either by individuals or organizations. There were also people who made a living as “thief takers”. They were not paid wages, but were rewarded by a proportion of the value of the stolen possessions they recovered. Later, in London, where the population was rapidly increasing and crime was rising, night-watchmen – the first paid law enforcement body were created and worked alongside the unpaid, part-time constables.
Britain, then, was slower to create and develop a police force than the rest of Europe: France had one long before – indeed, the word police is taken from the French. This fact was not unimportant, as the very idea of a police force was seen as foreign – that is, French – and particularly undesirable, and was generally regarded as a form of oppression.
It was not until Robert Peel set up his “new police” as a separate force in 1829 that policemen began to replace the old part-time constables. Sir Robert “Bobby” Peel’s own name provided two common nicknames for the new force: “Peelers” or “Bobbies”. These names seem mild, if not affectionate, and are possibly an interesting gauge of how the police were viewed by people at the time, in contrast with the kind of names they get called these days.